To safeguard their treasures and the sacredness of their tombs from thieves, the Pharaohs employed elaborate burial customs and tomb designs, such as dead ends, fake sarcophagi, hidden doorways, and deep shafts. An isolated canyon was identified as ideal for the royal necropolis, the Valley of the Kings. Nearby are the remains of the Valley of the Artisan, the settlement of hundreds of artisans who devoted themselves to the City of the Dead. Massive mortuary temples have also been discovered: Colossi of Memnon, temple of Hatshepsut, and the Temple of Ramses III. Highlights include the Valley of the Queens, Tombs of the Nobles, and the ruins of the Temple of Ramses II.